There are many different trumpet techniques, including articulation, effects, and advanced techniques. These various trumpet techniques can be classified in a variety of ways, and each group of techniques can be subdivided into several sub-groups. The articulation techniques, for example, can be divided into tonguing and non-tonguing techniques, and the effects can be divided into legato and non-legato techniques. Many different types of advanced techniques, such as multi-phonics and clicks, are available. Players employ various trumpet techniques to achieve the various effects required pieces of music.
A group of trumpet techniques known as articulation techniques is very common. There are two types of techniques: tonguing techniques and non-tonguing techniques. Tonguing is the process of breaking down notes with the tongue, which can be used to make a staccato or legato sound. Staccato notes are distinguished from notes preceding and following them, and on the trumpet, this is accomplished with the tongue. Legato techniques, on the other hand, aim for notes to flow smoothly into one another without the use of tonguing.
Tonguing is a trumpet technique that is frequently used. Non-legato and staccato are two techniques for breaking up individual notes that include tonguing. Double or triple tonguing, as well as flutter tonguing, are more advanced techniques. The tongue is used to divide notes into groups of two or three using double or triple tonguing. Flutter tonguing is when the player moves his tongue in a fluttering motion, as if articulating a rolled “r” sound.
Vibrato, glissando, trills, and cuivre are just a few of the effects that can be achieved with trumpet techniques. Vibrato is a legato technique in which the written note oscillates between slightly higher and lower in pitch, resulting in an oscillating sound. A glissando is a technique in which the player moves the note from one pitch to the next “sliding” it up. Trills are similar to vibrato, but the note alternates rapidly between two specific notes. Cuivre is a technique for producing a brassy sound on the trumpet that is unrelated to legato playing.
Other trumpet techniques are better suited to intermediate and advanced players. Multi-phonics, breath attacks, and clicks are examples of these techniques. Multi-phonics are advanced techniques in which the player “sings” into the trumpet while playing in order to produce multiple notes at once. By altering the amount of air pushed through the instrument, breath attacks change the sound it produces. Clicks are percussive techniques that are typically performed with the valves of a trumpet.