A percussion ensemble is a collection of musicians who specialize in percussion instruments. Although some percussion instruments are melodic, these ensembles focus primarily on the rhythmic aspect of music rather than melody. These ensembles come in a variety of shapes and sizes, and they can be found all over the world.
Triangles, cowbells, xylophones, chimes, windchimes, vibraphones, and various types of drums, the most common of which are the snare and bass, are commonly used members of a percussion ensemble. Nontraditional items that can be percussed to make a sound, such as bowls or trash can lids, may be used in more contemporary pieces. Percussionists in a percussion ensemble are frequently required to perform on multiple percussion instruments within the same composition. One player may, for example, play both the triangle and the cowbell, switching back and forth between the instruments as the music progresses.
In most cases, members of a percussion ensemble are not required to memorize their parts. However, the fact that one player may be assigned to cover multiple instruments often means that players do so naturally, as they may need to move around a lot to perform properly on each instrument. Percussion ensemble players can do this easily because they understand how each instrument’s part fits into the overall tapestry of the composition, similar to how an organist sees the right, left, and foot pedal lines as separate parts of a larger whole. Players place multiple copies of sheet music on different stands strategically placed among the instruments if a piece is too long or difficult to memorize. This eliminates the need to move the sheet music around during the performance.
Because of the wide range of instruments available to percussionists, the composer’s percussion ensemble palette can include a wide range of orchestrations. Traditional, contemporary, world, and marching percussion ensembles are the four main types of percussion ensembles.
Traditional percussion ensembles primarily perform classical percussion compositions. These works are usually written for two to twenty players. They may have multiple movements and follow well-known classical forms.
Traditional percussion ensembles’ work is expanded contemporary percussion ensembles. These groups experiment with different sounds and rhythmic combinations, pushing the envelope. Non-traditional instruments are more likely to be used them.
The goal of world percussion ensembles is to preserve authentic percussion sounds from a variety of countries. They might, for example, perform pieces that feature South American instruments like the claves or Indonesian instruments like the metallophones. These organizations want to promote percussion music as a separate art form, but they are also strong proponents of cultural appreciation and unity.
Parades and formal ceremonies frequently feature marching percussion ensembles. Snare drums, toms, bass drums, and xylophones are among the instruments used. Despite the fact that these groups are limited in terms of the instruments they can use due to the fact that everything they play must be carried, they frequently put on elaborate shows with complex choreographed movements and sequences.
The dynamic range of a percussion ensemble varies greatly depending on the composer’s writing and the number of players in the group. A large marching corps, for example, with up to 200 members, rarely performs indoors because the volume produced is so loud that members of the group must wear earplugs to protect their hearing while playing. Smaller groups can get down to a true piano or soft dynamic more easily, but they lack the numbers to match the volume of larger ensembles. However, the sound in smaller groups can still be loud enough for players to take precautions for their own and their audience’s hearing.
Percussion ensembles have been used in some form for thousands of years. The first ensembles were created to send messages from one village to another, usually during times of celebration or war. These groups did not always have formal sequences, but certain drums were frequently used to communicate specific concepts such as the need for assistance or the fact that a wedding was taking place. Percussionists often worked in tandem with aerophone players who played early types of horns in these groups.
Despite the fact that percussion ensembles have been used for communication in some form since ancient times, percussionists played a relatively minor role in formal music until the mid-nineteenth century. Composers were not able to experiment more freely with sound and form until this point, and tonality was abandoned. Due to the abandonment of tonality, percussionists no longer had to play in the background of ensembles and could now be featured as soloists.