The saxophone, also known as the sax, is a single instrument that belongs to the single reed group of woodwinds that also includes clarinets. Saxophones are commonly found in bands, big bands, and jazz bands, but they can also be found in orchestral works from the 19th and 20th centuries, as well as wind ensembles and woodwind choirs. Unlike clarinets, which are mostly made of wood, saxophones are mostly made of metal, usually brass. Regardless, they are classified as a woodwind instrument rather than a brass instrument.
The following is a list of single reeds that belong to the saxophone family, arranged from lowest to highest.
Tubaxes, which are specially designed versions of contrabass and subcontrabass saxophones in Eb and Bb, are also used to replace them.
Bass saxophones are an octave below the tenor saxophone and have a range similar to the bassoon’s.
In Eb, baritone saxophones sound about an octave lower than alto saxophones.
In Bb, tenor saxophones sound an octave lower than soprano saxophones.
In Eb, alto saxophones sound a fifth lower than soprano saxophones and an octave lower than sopranino saxophones.
In Bb, soprano saxophones are an octave higher than tenor saxophones. The tenor saxophone is the lowest saxophone with a straight body. In the early twentieth century, soprano saxes were commonly made in the key of C. These saxophones did not have a transposing function.
Sopranino saxophones in Eb expand the soprano saxophone’s range upward.
Tubaxes and Soprillo saxophones are made the same company that makes tubaxes. They have an octave higher range than a soprano saxophone.
The fingering system is the same on all saxophones, regardless of size or transposition. They all have a “break,” where the transition in fingering can be difficult for the inexperienced player. Adolph Sax invented the saxophone around the year 1840.
The saxophone’s fingering and techniques are similar to those of the clarinet, and many clarinetists also play the saxophone. There are three parts to the instruments. The saxophone’s bell, bow, and keys are all part of the instrument’s body. The mouthpiece assembly, which consists of the mouthpiece, the ligature, the reed, and the cap, is connected to the body the neck joint. The neck strap, which is used to support the heavier instruments for ease of playing, can be clipped to the back of the body.
Many well-known saxophone passages can be found. Bolero Maurice Ravel and Am American in Paris George Gershwin both feature a striking saxophone part. Sidney Bechet, Bill Clinton, John Coltrane, Jimmy Dorsey, Stan Getz, John Harle, Woody Herman, Charlie “Bird” Parker, and Lisa Simpson are among the notable saxophonists.