What is Degenerative Arthritis?

Degenerative arthritis, also known as osteoarthritis, is a chronic condition characterized the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. This condition mainly affects older individuals, but it can also occur in younger people due to certain risk factors. In this comprehensive guide, we will delve into the various aspects of degenerative arthritis, including its causes, symptoms, diagnosis, treatments, and management strategies.

Degenerative arthritis primarily affects weight-bearing joints such as the knees, hips, and spine, but it can also involve the hands, feet, and other joints. The condition typically develops gradually over time, with symptoms worsening as the disease progresses. While degenerative arthritis cannot be cured, there are numerous techniques and therapies available to manage pain, reduce inflammation, and improve joint function.

Causes of Degenerative Arthritis:

The exact cause of degenerative arthritis is unknown, but it is believed to be a result of a combination of factors, including both genetic and environmental influences. Several risk factors have been identified that increase the likelihood of developing this condition. These include:

1. Age:

As mentioned earlier, degenerative arthritis is more common in older individuals. As we age, the cartilage in our joints undergoes natural wear and tear, leading to its breakdown and the development of arthritis.

2. Genetics:

There is evidence to suggest that certain genes may predispose individuals to degenerative arthritis. People with a family history of the condition are more likely to develop it themselves.

3. Previous Joint Injuries:

Joint injuries, such as fractures or ligament tears, can increase the risk of developing degenerative arthritis in the affected joint.

4. Obesity:

Excess weight puts extra stress on the joints, particularly the knees and hips, which can accelerate the breakdown of cartilage and lead to arthritis.

5. Occupation:

Certain occupations that involve repetitive stress or joint overuse, such as construction work or assembly line work, can increase the risk of developing degenerative arthritis.

Symptoms of Degenerative Arthritis:

The symptoms of degenerative arthritis can vary depending on the joints affected, but common signs and symptoms include:

1. Joint pain:

The most common symptom of degenerative arthritis is joint pain, which is often described as a deep ache within the affected joint. The pain may worsen with movement and improve with rest.

2. Stiffness:

Joint stiffness, particularly after periods of inactivity, is a characteristic symptom of degenerative arthritis. This stiffness usually improves with movement.

3. Swelling:

Inflammation of the joints can result in swelling and tenderness around the affected area.

4. Decreased range of motion:

Over time, degenerative arthritis can lead to a decrease in the range of motion of the affected joint. This can make simple tasks, such as bending or straightening the knee, difficult and painful.

5. Joint deformities:

In advanced cases, degenerative arthritis can cause joint deformities, such as the development of bony growths called bone spurs.

Diagnosis of Degenerative Arthritis:

To diagnose degenerative arthritis, a healthcare professional will typically perform a thorough medical history review, physical examination, and may order additional tests to confirm the diagnosis. These tests may include:

1. X-rays:

X-rays can help visualize the joint and identify any changes indicative of degenerative arthritis, such as joint space narrowing, bony spurs, or changes in the underlying bone.

2. Magnetic Resonance Imaging (MRI):

In some cases, an MRI may be ordered to provide a detailed image of the joint and surrounding structures, allowing for a more accurate diagnosis.

3. Joint fluid analysis:

In certain situations, a sample of joint fluid may be extracted using a needle and analyzed for signs of inflammation, infection, or other conditions that may mimic degenerative arthritis.

4. Blood tests:

While there are no definitive blood tests for diagnosing degenerative arthritis, certain blood markers may be checked to rule out other possible causes of joint pain and inflammation.

Treatments for Degenerative Arthritis:

While there is no cure for degenerative arthritis, there are several treatment options available to manage symptoms, improve joint function, and enhance quality of life. The choice of treatment may vary depending on the severity of the condition, the affected joints, and individual patient factors. Some common treatment options include:

1. Medications:

Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) are commonly prescribed to reduce pain and inflammation associated with degenerative arthritis. Acetaminophen may also be used to manage pain, particularly in individuals who cannot tolerate NSAIDs. In some cases, corticosteroid injections may be recommended to provide temporary relief.

2. Physical therapy:

A physical therapist can design a personalized exercise program to help strengthen the muscles surrounding the affected joint, improve range of motion, and reduce pain. Therapy may include a combination of stretching, strengthening, and aerobic exercises.

3. Assistive devices:

The use of assistive devices, such as braces, splints, or canes, can help support the affected joint and reduce strain during daily activities.

4. Weight management:

Losing weight or maintaining a healthy weight can significantly reduce the stress placed on the joints, particularly the knees and hips, and alleviate symptoms of degenerative arthritis.

5. Alternative therapies:

Some individuals find relief from degenerative arthritis symptoms through alternative therapies such as acupuncture, massage, or transcutaneous electrical nerve stimulation (TENS).

6. Surgical intervention:

In severe cases where conservative measures have not been effective, surgical options may be considered. These can include joint replacement surgery, joint fusion, or arthroscopy.

Management Strategies for Degenerative Arthritis:

In addition to medical treatments, there are several management strategies individuals can adopt to improve their quality of life while living with degenerative arthritis. These may include:

1. Regular exercise:

Engaging in low-impact exercises, such as swimming, walking, or cycling, can help strengthen the muscles around the affected joints, improve joint flexibility, and promote overall joint health.

2. Rest and pacing:

Balancing periods of activity with rest is crucial in managing the symptoms of degenerative arthritis. Pacing oneself and avoiding overexertion can help prevent joint pain and fatigue.

3. Heat and cold therapy:

Applying heat or cold to the affected joint can provide temporary relief from pain and stiffness. Heat can aid in relaxation and alleviate muscle tension, while cold therapy helps reduce inflammation and numbs the area.

4. Joint protection:

Taking precautions to protect the joints during daily activities can help minimize stress and slow down the progression of degenerative arthritis. This may involve using proper body mechanics, employing assistive devices, and avoiding activities that exacerbate joint pain.

5. Education and support:

Learning about the condition and seeking support from healthcare professionals or support groups can offer valuable insights, coping strategies, and emotional support for individuals living with degenerative arthritis.


Degenerative arthritis, or osteoarthritis, is a chronic condition characterized the breakdown of cartilage in the joints. It is a common condition that primarily affects older individuals but can also occur in younger people due to various risk factors. While there is no cure for degenerative arthritis, there are numerous treatment options available to manage symptoms, improve joint function, and enhance quality of life. It is important for individuals with degenerative arthritis to work closely with healthcare professionals to develop a personalized treatment plan that addresses their specific needs and goals. By adopting these treatment strategies and implementing lifestyle modifications, individuals can effectively manage the symptoms of degenerative arthritis and maintain an active and fulfilling life.