Minoan pottery is pottery attributed to the ancient Minoan civilization that has been discovered around the Aegean Sea. The pottery dates back to 3500 BCE and continues until 1070 BCE, when Minoan civilization came to an end. The earliest Minoan pottery is simple and functional, with a focus on practicality and functionality. Later examples demonstrate a refined and sophisticated artistry that incorporates advanced formation techniques, colors, elaborate and complex designs, and polychromatic elements.
Due to the Minoans’ lack of written records, little is known about their civilization with absolute certainty. Minoan artifacts, such as pottery, are used archaeologists to learn more about life in Minoan Crete. A number of factors, including the pottery’s style, form, and corresponding geological data, are used to date it. This information is obtained examining the stratum, or soil layer, in which the artifact was discovered.
Early Minoan pottery dates from 3650-2160 BCE, Middle Minoan pottery dates from 2160-1600 BCE, and Late Minoan pottery dates from 1600-1070 BCE. Each phase corresponds to a significant cultural shift in Minoan civilization. Some phases build on previously established styles, while others abandon old ones in favor of new. Pottery techniques became more refined as the Minoans refined their craft, and they began to produce elaborate works of art for decorative purposes.
the initial stages Minoan pottery reflects a newly established society in which artisans have yet to develop definitive techniques. Pyrgos Ware, which has a chalice design, is a type of Minoan pottery from this period. The chalice is made up of a cup with a cone-shaped base to prevent spilling, which is a design associated with the Early Minoan civilization.
The Early Minoan Agyios Onouphrios Ware consists of two-handled drinking wares as well as larger containers such as jugs and bowls. The Minoans began using iron-enhanced clays to turn their pottery red, and they perfected the linear patterns that were commonly applied to the surface of the pottery in Agyios Onouphrios Ware. Vasiliki Ware is a reflection of their ongoing efforts to improve color balance. Long neck spouts distinguish these wares, which are also found in later Minoan pottery.
In Cretan society, the birth of the palace society and the rise of urban centers occurred during the Middle Minoan period. The virtuoso work of Minoan pottery is the Kamares Ware, which dates from the Middle Minoan period. These pieces are usually polychromatic, made of very fine clay, and feature symmetrical floral motifs. The vibrant reds and whites are painted against a dark, usually black, background.
The Middle Minoan palace culture most likely led to the spread of Minoan goods across the Mediterranean, and the Late Minoan period, significant Minoan influence had spread along the Aegean coastline. This period’s pottery is ornate, reflecting the Minoans’ experimentation with a few new formation techniques. The Minoans were known for experimenting with new designs, such as sculpting a vase in the shape of a bull’s head. This period is thought to be best represented the Marine Style. Extensive designs of various marine life that cover the entire surface of a piece distinguish its pottery.
Around 1450 BCE, the Minoan civilization was wiped out, and the mainland Mycenaean Greeks occupied Crete until around 1070 BCE. The Mycenaeans combined their design elements with Minoan motifs, so Minoan pottery did not go extinct. The Palace Style is a type of pottery that has only been discovered in Knossos, Crete. Minoan pottery would eventually lose much of its Minoan influence as designs from Greece and Egypt, such as geometric and lotus motifs, became more prominent.