As many types of art as there are types of art, there are as many types of art galleries. An art gallery, in general, has a specific focus and is run a curator who specializes in that particular genre of art. Art from a specific region, art in a specific medium, art in a specific style, or art with a specific focus, such as political art, are all common gallery focuses. In most cases, all of the art in a gallery is for sale, though the gallery may keep a special permanent collection or sponsor a one-of-a-kind exhibition.
Most art galleries are open to the public, which means that anyone can walk into one and purchase artwork. Public galleries, on the other hand, usually have frequent openings and prominently advertise their presence. Many artists begin their careers in public galleries, which can sell work on commission or buy and resell work created other artists. Some galleries, on the other hand, are private, which means that you must be a member to visit them. High-end art is displayed in private galleries, which also host lavish openings.
Many art galleries employ curators who specialize in art from a particular region or time period. European art, Australian aboriginal art, Chinese art, Asian art in general, and African art are all examples of regions. A gallery might only show Peruvian textiles, for example, if the regional focus is extremely limited. At other times, the focus is more broad, encompassing a wide range of artistic styles from a broad geographic region. In some cases, a gallery will only show art from a specific time period. This is particularly common in contemporary galleries that specialize in modern art.
Furniture, oil painting, jewelry, photography, sculpture, textiles, and pottery are all examples of mediums that art galleries specialize in. It could be a more general collection of works in that medium, or it could be specific to a region or time period. Typically, the art on display comes from a diverse group of artists, allowing collectors of that medium to learn about newcomers to the field and purchase a diverse range of works.
A gallery with a specific cultural focus is another common type of art gallery. This could be a political, historical, or medium-based focus. A gallery, for example, might decide to only show contemporary comic art. Another gallery might show work Jewish artists from the twentieth century or political art created African refugees. These galleries are usually open to the general public in order to promote cultural education and enrichment.